“V” Tool - Parting or veining tool used in wood working at 45º and 60º angles for furrowing in wood and stone.
Vacuum - State resulting from the removal of air from rubber or clay before use to avoid air bubbles in the final piece.
Vanadium - Polyvalent metallic used as an alloy as in vanadium steel.
Vapor - Gaseous state as opposed to a solid or liquid state.
Variation - The extent to which items or masses may differ. Raw materials used in formulas, for instance, may vary in quality from year to year depending on the mining level.
Vatican Art Casting Stone - Trade name of Sculpture House, Inc. Artificial casting stone made of gypsum and aggregate to simulate marble. Available in different base colors.
Vent - A channel or opening in a mold through which air and gases may escape thereby preventing damage to the cast or air pockets in the cast.
Vermiculite - A moisture absorbing silicate used as a filler in clay bodies.
Vermont Marble - A hard, white, vein-free marble from Vermont; Barry, Vermont is its center of production.
Vibration - When pouring rubber or plaster, a process of shaking the mold or container to eliminate air bubbles in the rubber or plaster.
Victory Wax - Soft brown wax or Microcrystalline Wax used in bronze casting and direct modeling. Derivative of petroleum.
Viscosity - The rate of flow at which a liquid follows a given path. In sculpture, applied to molten bronze, plaster and other metals able to be cast.
Vise - Gripping device with jaws to secure a piece of sculpture or wood that is being worked.
Vitrification - The process by which a clay body is heated until it becomes non-porous.
Volatilize - To cause to pass off in vapor.
Volcanic Ash - Produced by volcanic eruption, a material used in ceramic glaze formulas.
Volume - Amount of space occupied by a model measured in cubic units.