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GLOSSARY



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Hacksaw - A thin-blade, hand-held saw for cutting small thin pieces of material.

Hammer - A percussion instrument of soft iron or steel used in sculpture. Designed for use on stone so the impact will not injure the stone.

Handles - Attachments to tools providing a working hand hold and securing hammer heads, wire ends, or wood carving tool blades.

Hand Made Tools - Custom designed modeling or carving tools shaped or fashioned by craftsmen by hand rather than by machine.

Handpiece - In electric or pneumatic usage, the piece of machinery that holds the working blade or tool.

Hard Edge - The tip of a tool or wire that has been hardened or tempered to perform a specific cutting job. Wood carving and stone carving tools have different hardnesses depending on their use.

Hardwood - Wood that has sure hardness greater than that of normal base woods. Lignum Vitae, Purple Heart, acacia and boxwood are hardwoods, whereas walnut, birch, oak, and mahogany are considered base woods.

Heartwood - The center piece of a log.

Heat Treating - A bath or chemical process used to harden steel, such as a salt bath or electrical induction.

Hercules Stand - Trade name of Sculpture House, Inc. A heavy duty sculpture stand raised and lowered by cranking. Made in the United States, it is the largest stand of its type and can hold up to 750 pounds of working material.

Hollow Casting - Thin layers of casting material built up on the inside of the mold to make a hollow rather than solid casting, in bronze created by the wax thickness but with plaster casting the interior walls are built up to form this hollow casting. Plaster can also be cast solid.

Honing - Razor sharp finishing done by hand or machine as an extra step in the sharpening process. Tools that have been honed are usually covered with a protective plastic that can be removed by striking the edge on wood.

Hook Knife - A knife with a curved cutting edge and severe hook on the tip end. Used to clean horses’ hooves in Austria and Germany, but also used in wood carving.

Horse Hide Glue - Gelatin pellets melted to form a glue for mold making in the early 1900’s. This material has been replaced by latex and polyurethane rubbers.

Hot Metal Plaster - A gypsum material that can withstand high temperatures, although not so high as to be able to cast bronze. Lead, tin, and pewter can be cast into this plaster material.

Hugo Grey - Trade name of Sculpture House, Inc., sculpture or pottery clay, gray in color, but fires white at cone 6. Replaces French modeling clay as a sculpture material in that it is well suited for modeling since it takes shadows well and is pliable, smooth, and plastic.

Humidity - Is measured by the moisture in the air; it can cause discrepancies in setting or drying times of certain mold making and casting materials.

Hydrocal - Trade name of U.S. Gypsum Co. A strong gypsum material used for casting rather than mold making, stronger than casting plaster but not as strong as Hydrostone.

Hydrostone - Trade name of U.S. Gypsum Co. A gypsum product of the greatest hardness, used for casting only, not mold making.

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